PDF: Principles of flap design, development and management - Larry 1. Peterson

The removal of most erupted teeth can be achieved by closed or forceps delivery, but occasionally this technique does not suffice.

The surgical, or open, extraction technique is the method used for recovering roots that were fractured during routine extraction or teeth and cannot be extracted by the routine closed methods for a variety of reasons. 

In addition, removal of multiple teeth during one surgical session requires more than the routine removal of teeth as described in Chapter 7. 

Small flaps are usually required for recontouring and smoothing bone. This chapter discusses techniques for surgical tooth extraction.

The principles of flap design, development, management, and suturing are explained, as are the principles of surgical extraction of single-rooted and multirooted teeth. Also discussed are the principles involved in multiple extractions and concomitant alveoloplasty. 

The term local flap indicates a section of soft tissue that is outlined by a surgical incision, carries its own blood supply, allows surgical access to underlying tissues, can be replaced in the original position, and can be maintained with sutures and is expected to heal.

Soft tissue flap are frequently used in oral surgical, periodontic, and endodontic procedures to gain access to underlying tooth and bone structures.

To perform a tooth extraction properly the dentist must have a clear understanding of the principles of design, development, and management of soft tissue flaps. 

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