Humans are diphyodonts, i.e., they have two successive sets of teeth, which we call the primary and the permanent teeth. 

Primary set of teeth is important in a child's life as it helps them to speak, chew their food, and also contributes to facial esthetics.

Primary dentition conserves the integrity and length of the dental arches, finally aiding in guiding the permanent successors to their right positions in the mouth. 

The primary incisor teeth are functional in the mouth for approximately five years, during which the primary molars are functional for approximately nine years. 

Therefore it is necessary to preserve the primary teeth in an intact condition until the eruption of the permanent successor. Maintaining healthy primary teeth is essential to a child’s overall oral and general development.

Premature loss of deciduous teeth can cause malocclusion in addition to functional and esthetic problems. 

Early loss of teeth might lead to short-term effects like problems in eating and speaking and long-term effects like malalignment of permanent teeth and increased risk of malocclusion later on. 

The pulp in primary dentition is histologically similar to permanent teeth and may be affected by caries, restorative procedures, and trauma.

Pulp injuries due to caries and trauma may threaten pulp vitality, so appropriate treatment such as Vital Pulp Therapy or Root Canal Treatment may be required. 

In this review, we aim to review the various therapeutic approaches that can be used as a part of vital pulp therapy in primary teeth to preserve their healthy pulp tissues, their indications, objectives, and the biocompatible materials that can be used for these procedures. 

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