PDF: A General Overview of Post Extraction Complications-Prevention, Management and Importance of Post Extraction Advices

Exodontia is essentially a surgical procedure and warrants all the judicious precautions and the aseptic care to prevent complications. Whenever the basic principle of surgery is violated, the relative chances of developing complications are increased significantly.

Complications are multifactorial and are correlated to either to the patient’s health status or habits or to systemic and local factors. Post extraction complications can be delayed complications or late complications.

A careful analysis of patient’s medical history, proper surgical technique and the correct instructions in the post surgical behaviour prevent the insurgence of intra and post operative complications. 

Complications following extraction of teeth can be serious and sometimes fatal. The surgeon should recognize these conditions early and treat them in their incipiency.

Post extraction complications can be immediate complications like failure to secure local anaesthesia, failure to remove the tooth, fracture of tooth or root, fracture of the alveolus (including maxillary tuberosity), oro-antral communication, displacement of tooth or a root into the adjacent tissues, aspiration of the tooth or part of a tooth into the pharynx, collateral damage to surrounding soft tissues, thermal injury, bleeding, dislocation of temporomandibular joint, fracture of mandible, damage to nerve; or delayed complications like excessive pain, swelling, trismus, localized alveolar osteitis, acute osteomyelitis, infection of soft tissues, oro-antral fistula, failure of the socket to heal; or late complications like chronic osteomyelitis, osteoradionecrosis, nerve damage, chronic pain. 

After the surgical procedure has been completed, patients should be given proper instructions to manage and control the typical post operative sequel. 

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